"Why is the ROT13 algorithm insecure" Because it's the simplest and most commonly known algorithm, because it can be cracked by hand in seconds, because it does nothing to hide letter frequency, and for many more reasons.
"Storing your username and password in your php.ini file rather than in individual scripts is beneficial for security: true or false" This can go both ways: it's more secure if you trust those who can read your php.ini file.
"What encryption algorithm is your best choice for general encryption use" The answer is "b", Rijndael, because it was adopted as the official standard some time ago and won't be superseded for some time.
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