Know MySQL's strengths
Although MySQL is a fast DBMS all-round, there are some things it does particularly well. We have covered the majority here, but there is one particular optimisation you should be aware of, and that is that the following syntax is particularly fast:
SELECT foo FROM bar WHERE baz IN (constant1, constant2, constant3);
This holds true even if you have a fairly long list of constants for the IN clause.
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Benchmark, benchmark, benchmark!
Performance Optimising your code Write your code sensibly Use your tools wisely Use some functions carefully for maximum performance Use the Zend Optimizer for older PHP versions Use a PHP code cache for newer PHP versions Read the manual carefully Get your loops right first Pre-increment and post-increment aren't the same Don't think that using references will lower your RAM usage Be wary of garbage collection, part 1 Be wary of garbage collection, part 2 Listen to all errors, big and small Keep up to date Cache array data Compress your output Don't use CGI Don't use dl() Debug your code Cache your data with memcache Use persistent connections Take advantage of new features Compile right Ignore the myths Avoid mod_access if you can Make sure you optimize Apache Optimising your SQL Prioritise your data Optimise your tables Select as little data as possible Use shorter queries where possible Use the EXPLAIN statement Change your hardware Choose your data types carefully Size vs. Speed Declare fields NOT NULL Load data intelligently Consider splitting off variable-length fields Be wary of locks Consider switching OS Spot slow queries Perform joins carefully Index your data Make sure your indexes are being used Normalisation Upgrade MySQL Increase your buffers Keep tabs on your server Lock your tables when appropriate Don't rely on automatic type conversion Benchmark, benchmark, benchmark! Know MySQL's strengths Server PHP Accelerators Caching PHP PHP as a CGI or a module? Size of scripts Summary Exercises Further reading Next chapter
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